It was also reported in the 440C study that because the unprocessed region had much lower corrosion resistance that there was galvanic corrosion effect where corrosion was accelerated in the unprocessed region, but protecting the processed region. It slows down the quenching speed to such an extent (because chromium greatly affects hardenability) that a plate quench works very well for the thinner stock. Differential heat treatments (soft spine, hard edge) are difficult to achieve with conventional methods on high alloy steels like D2. 422-426. Force is applied until a maximum of 65 lbs is realized. These added elements increase strength and toughness, machinability, and corrosion resistance and hardness for better edge retention. — Dr. Tracy Nelson, Phd., Brigham Young University Mechanical … Trans Tech Publications Ltd, 2013. Furthermore, the “Industry Standard” heat treat is designed to leave roughly 50% of the potential of the steel untouched and unused. Sincerely The combination of thousands of pounds of forging force, tool rotation, and temperatures above the transformation temperature produces dramatic reductions in grain size. - Duration: 4:11. Thanks to Keith Coleman, Paul Bruno, Lotiel Vardamir, and Lennart Palkovits for becoming Knife Steel Nerds Patreon supporters! Hand forged … They claimed that, “Rope was used instead of CATRA test media because the CATRA test media was too aggressive, and not indicative of the typical use of outdoor knives.” Here are the reported results of their CATRA testing: The amount of rope cut in the first cycle was significantly more with the FSP processed D2. “Solid state processing of hand-held knife blades to improve blade performance.” U.S. Patent 8,186,561, issued May 29, 2012. So what is it, that they don’t want us to know “? S90V lasts until about 140. I did not see any benefit with the friction forged D2. 90 “Rapid surface hardening and enhanced tribological performance of 4140 steel by friction stir processing.” Wear 332 (2015): 962-970. May 9, 2020 - Explore Jane Doe's board "Friction Folding Knives" on Pinterest. Different edge angle. My hat is off to Phil Wilson for having the honesty and integrity to admit the FSP D2 knife “outcut his two comparison knives by about 30%” . Friction Forging® uses a specially designed tool made from Polycrystalline Cubic Boron Nitride … With all due respect, the over-all and underlying theme of your article was negative. Grain refinement relates directly to toughness and toughness is the missing ingredient in most high carbon knives made today. Dear Mr Thomas..I would politely suggest you go back to the institution where you got your degree and either learn the basics of metallurgy or give back your certificate of Material Science. Sprayform and especially powder metallurgy leads to a finer carbide structure: Diamondblade Knives claims a grain size of 0.5 micron . Their email inbox should be flooded with questions on how to get these same advantages of GR in their own shops.  https://www.diamondbladeknives.com/FAQ. It gets rid of rolling directionality issues which can really present themselves on steels with large primary alloy carbides (Chrome Carbide). “Evaluation of microstructure and mechanical properties in friction stir processed SKD61 tool steel.” Materials characterization 60, no. A study cited in the previous grain size section found 2.3 micron grain size for FSP D2 which sounds more reasonable so I wonder if they are indeed able to get the grain size down to 0.5 microns. The second machine is an abrasion test machine referred to as an Edge Retention Tester or ERT and uses a rack and pinion reciprocating drive system that is computer monitored and programmed. The grains are in effect torn apart and reduced in size by the combination of very high pressure and heat. It matters not at all that you included positive material, that was only something to fall back on, if you were confronted. It’s also interesting that the fabrication shops with military contracts for making bearings ,utilize the much higher normalizing temps for 52100. The alternative is a … Read this article to learn more about retained austenite. A stainless edge reduces or eliminates this problem. But the Friction Forged D2 still had a REST value less than 3.0 with more than 250 inches of rope cut. Gas nozzles create an argon gas “hood” over the processed zone to reduce oxidation and further assist the quenching process. Friction Forging® provides rapid heating, deformation, grain refinement through dynamic crystal shearing, and rapid cooling to produce an outstanding microstructure. If you gave your paper on friction forged knives to 100 people, every one of them would admit the negative aspect of the article dominated their thinking…and that is the way you designed it to be. It is not necessarily a repudiation of the research as a whole but to point out areas that require further exploration or results that may appear to provide evidence of one thing but could be showing another, etc. TMNT Friction Folder Knife - Alien Knives Handmade 1084 Teenage Ninja Turtles Davoworks From shop Davoworks $ 99.00 FREE shipping Favorite Add to Hand forged rasp file friction folder with hand 5 out It truly is a pity that the real world products we make and use everyday are based on assumptions and estimates. Then they instruct the steel industry to suppress any inquiries and information about grain refinement in high alloy steels. “Friction stir processing of D2 tool steel for enhanced blade performance.” In TMS Annual Meeting, pp. Corrosion resistance and wear resistance improvements have also been reported. Best Regards This does not change the steel from coarse carbides to super fine powder metallurgy-like structure but there is some refinement reported. Reported results are somewhat mixed but grain refinement, carbide refinement, and hardness improvements have been reported when compared with conventionally heat treated steel. If sharpened, all would have extremely sharp, hard edges but will not stand much transverse force.  Costa, M. I., D. Verdera, M. T. Vieira, and D. M. Rodrigues. This prevents edge degradation due to corrosion. In fact the friction forged blade appears to be slightly worse. S90V goes to about 799 strokes. This is important as it highlights potential biases, both in the work and his own…. Honestly, unless you expect him to downplay his data with quip statements like “I know this isn’t cardstock, but it’s all the same, here, just read it as if it was cardstock,” or “I see you put subjective edge reports/dialogue, here let me read that across to my quantified impact toughness data,” you can’t ask for much more than a post garnering attention to FSP produced knives. Clay, that’s what I meant about “your beliefs” you seem to feel there is some grand conspiracy limiting true knife performance. Is this how H1 steel is hardened? DIFFERTIALLY HARDENED BLADE: A knife that has a fine-grained, hard, tough edge for long-lasting sharpness yet the remainder of the blade is softer and slightly “springy” and very tough is one of the trademarks of a superior blade. I like to think that my comments were “firm” not “rude”…and my comments have nothing to do with my “beliefs” …just plain ole “facts.”. Phil Wilson compared the edge retention of a CPM-154 and CPM-D2 knife both at 62 Rc that he made to a FSP D2 knife . The machine measures how sharp the blade is by recording the maximum force required in Newtons to cut into a piece of silicone test media. Traditional Knife/Knives - 12" Full Angkhola Yugal Kukri - Authentic Hand Forged Full Tang Guard Handle Blade Handmade in Nepal 3.1 out of 5 stars 5 $129.90 $ 129 . “Enhancement in hardness and corrosion resistance of AISI 420 martensitic stainless steel via friction stir processing.” Surface and Coatings Technology 357 (2019): 339-347. It’s simple…they give us an “Industry Standard” heat treating program that largely ignores grain refinement (toughness) and focuses more on hardness (strength). The studies cited above often optimize the FSP parameters to maximize hardness and then compare against conventional hardening which is not designed with the same goal. My reason for commenting on the FSP was to test the waters of the knife community to see if there might be some interest in grain and carbide refinement. After cutting through 250 inches of rope, the blade is still cutting more than 0.2 inches per stroke. The steel industry is the Denomination…the Industry Standard is the bible, doctrines, covenants and by-laws…and the forums and colleges are the churches where the members congregate freely to receive their daily dose of stupidity. However, 1000°C isn’t high enough for peak hardness and 1200°C is too high because of excess retained austenite. No direct comparison was made to conventional processing. Knives And Tools Knives And Swords Friction Folder Knife Template Best Pocket Knife Edc Knife Straight Razor Tactical Knives Today we welcomed 168 new members to the #ACAlumni community.  Nagaoka, Toru, Hiroyuki Watanabe, Masao Fukusumi, Yusuke Kitamura, Tadashi Mizuno, Genryu Abe, Yoshiaki Morisada, and Hidetoshi Fujii. Performance Forged in Steel: How DiamondBlade Knives are made! Sincerely The blade has a graceful, full-bellied 4″ drop-point blade — it’s old school cool. I found the negative slur of this article to be very disturbing as the detrimental implications, without hard evidence, could (and maybe already have) negatively affect the businesses Of Diamond Blade Knives, Cliff Stamp and Phil Wilson. There is no inherent advantage to FSP in terms of initial sharpness. I pointed out that the hardness was higher than expected and could be a positive indication of grain refinement. Nowhere did I say that the knives are bad or that no one should buy one. I have never seen anyone use rope instead of cardstock and its use raises some questions. In a study of 4140 a hardness of 62 Rc was achieved compared with 61 Rc with conventional hardening and a water quench . This is similar to hardness measurements of D2 I have taken with different heat treatment parameters, though I used cryo after quenching. The chromium, molybdenum and vanadium don’t come into play as they are still tied up in carbides. Clay Sterling. Performance advancements were built upon a metallurgical knowledge base from decades of research and practical knowledge in metallurgy, knife making, and general industrial uses of steel. Friction stir processing of D2 was found to be reach 65-67 Rc . Improvements in hardness have been claimed from Friction Stir Processing relative to conventional austenitizing and quenching. His custom knives were thinner behind the edge: 0.01″ compared with 0.015″. Friction Forging® is a proven technological leap ahead of any other manufactured knife blade. A review of the studies on FSP with tool steel and what … So I am going to detail the process used to produce the knives and what the properties of the steel likely are. What would the performance of a knife blade be, if it incorporated extreme hardness and extreme toughness in the same blade? The rapid edge quench freezes some of the Chromium into the ferrite before it can be combined again with carbides and actually creates a true stainless steel processed edge zone in D2. Below shows conventional D2 (left) and friction stir process (right). The edge retention is reported to be superior to lower hardness D2 and CPM-154. Fortunately, they used a separate sharpness test to determine if the sharpness was different. Our blade tests’ were done completely “hands off” to remove the human factor and insure fairness and produce measurable quantitative results. Thus far all published numbers on very high hardness steel show relatively low toughness. I've come across tons of "miracle processed" steels, but this one was … Figure 1 shows that the Friction Forged® blade starts out sharper, cutting 50% more material per stroke at the outset. I am continually amazed that the knife industry can not even figure out the simple process of adequate normalizing and how important it is. If an “idiot” like me can figure out some of these things, then what could somebody do that actually had some common sense and aptitude ?? Wayne Goddard reportedly  chopped through a 2×4 and then bent the blade 120 degrees. Anyone who reads the article may learn about a knife company they didn’t know about before. Diamondblade Knives is a sub-company of Knives of Alaska. Especially when one considers how vastly important it is. I have finished a pair of new friction folders. The shingle test did not show that the friction forged D2, D2 and S30V had any advantage over the other. I assume this is purely due to hardness differences but perhaps some other effect could be in play. This zone is so corrosion resistant that a 10% nitric acid etchant will not etch the processed zone.  Chen, Y. C., and K. Nakata. The knives are advertised as having a finer grain structure than powder metallurgy stainless steel and superior edge retention, toughness, and sharpness than knives tested in 12 other blade steels including S90V. Corrosion experiments in FSP-processed steels have revealed corrosion resistance improvements. Knife blades have been forged for thousands of years, using hand-held hammers, power hammer mills, or some other pressure exerting force. This is a very fine grain structure. This is especially the case when there are no “buffers”, such as oxides between the grains that will be prone to allowing a crack to run between the grains in the oxide regions. What is forging? Friction stir processing is used to improve properties in a processed zone without welding anything. 3. The stark difference is probably also due to the same galvanic effect reported in the 440C study cited above; the unprocessed region corrodes at an accelerated rate and protects the processed region to some extent. We want real world testing and factual evidence. When friction stir processing steel, the high heat that is generated in combination with rapid cooling leads to a process similar to hardening steel: the steel is “austenitized” and quenched to form hard martensite. Diamondblade Knives are produced with D2 steel.  Dodds, S., A. H. Jones, and S. Cater. so they quickly run back to their little box where they are safe from all that. The friction forging produces a differential Rockwell hardness of 65-69 on the lead edge down to 42-45 at the … He found the FSP D2 knife to outcut his two comparison knives by about 30%. The reason is because each “cut” is both a forward and backward stroke, so the first half-cut wears the edge which leads to less cutting in the second half. The development and patenting of what Allen calls “Friction Forging” of a knife blade’s edge has resulted in the “DiamondBlade knife line.” The first is a machine made by CATRA (Cutlery & Allied Trade Research Association) that is called a “Razor Edge Sharpness Tester” (REST). WOW !!! But to be honest with you I am so glad to be free from their religious type of thinking that throws the facts away in favor of their assumptions, speculations and estimations…all of which are readily provided for them by the industry. “Friction” Forging® is a localized forging process achieving high. The toughness of Friction Forged D2 is reported to be good, though the experimental evidence of this is somewhat limited. The normalizing temperature for highly spheroidized 52100 is 1900 degrees f (or even higher) for 20-30 minutes. The sharpness was indeed better. HAS FINEST GRAIN STRUCTURE: Measured with Transmission Electron Microscope (TEM) and Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM) micrographs, Friction Forging® has been proven to create “nanosized” superfine grain structures. Below I have a summary of a few of the studies that claimed grain refinement in tool steel or stainless steels: In general it looks like friction stir processing can lead to grain sizes in the low single digits. “Surface enhancement of cold work tool steels by friction stir processing with a pinless tool.” Applied surface science 296 (2014): 214-220. Accepting otherwise would require much greater evidence than has been provided. Also, Larrin, please don’t go back to Met school, I think you’ve drained them for all they’ve got; you know far enough already. When controlled amounts of other elements, especially carbon, are added iron becomes steel. Knife making is no longer a “craft” or a “trade”, it has become a religion. 2) I cannot know that high hardness steel is low in toughness. I expected factual evidence from you to prove your point, but none was given. I believe Larrin is in a tough place. It is accepted common knowledge and a metallurgical fact that the finer the grain, the stronger the metal. No amount of justifying on your part will change that. We will however, show results comparing Friction Forged® blades to “best processed” D2, CPM90V and CPMS30 as the S90 and S30 were the steels that came the closest to Friction Forged blade performance. Their is a reason for the silence of the industry on grain refinement. Yet, there are just “holes” in your information about what makes true knife performance that you’re attempting to fill with unorthodoxed methods. Vanadium (V), Chromium (Cr), Molybdenum (Mo), Carbon(C), Manganese (Mn), and other elements combine to bring desirable blade characteristics. The degree of flexing, bending or chipping is noted and recorded for each blade tested. However, stupidity is incurable and can not be fixed. A 30% increase in performance is hard to predict ?? “My knife … I wanted to thank you for allowing me the privilege to post comments on your site. Thanks for this site and your involvement in our community. Ordinary D2 lasts for about 15 strokes. A ¾ inch manila rope section is fed into the machine and the test blade cuts the rope and records the number of strokes and the thickness of rope cut with each stroke. LEARN ABOUT DIAMONDBLADE'S REVOLUTIONARY FRICTION FORGING® TECHNOLOGY JOIN OUR NEWSLETTER FOR SPECIAL DEALS AND PROMOTIONS DiamondBlade Knives 3100 Airport Drive … Figure 3 illustrates the number of strokes it takes to dull the blade. The company DiamondBlade Knives produces knives with friction stir processed (FSP) edges . The higher the HRc values, the better the cutting performance and edge longevity—as long as the brittleness issue is managed as it is with Friction Forging®. Figure 2: Total media cut as a function cumulative REST sharpness. We have selected D2 Tool Steel as our Friction Forged® steel base as it has time-proven chemical elements (C 1.5%, Cr 12%, Mo .8%, V .9%, Mn .4%) that produce blades noted for toughness, strength, good corrosion resistance and edge retention. So the claim of improved sharpness doesn’t make sense according to their own data: 2. It could lead to the unprocessed portion of the blade corroding at a faster rate, however. Diamondblade Knives has reported somewhat of a carbide refinement from FSP. Spine Rc …  Allen, Charles E., Richard A. Cool Knives Knives And Tools Knives And Swords Friction Folder La Forge Forged Knife Survival Weapons Edc Knife Edc Gear Instagram post by Rylan, Host of TheKnifeClub • Jun 20, 2016 at 7:57pm … Keep on with these great articles and reviews. What would happen if knife makers ever found out that the “Industry Standard” heat treat is actually a “Sub Standard” heat treat that only uses half of what the steel has to offer? Become a patron and gain access to awesome rewards including early access to articles or a Knife Steel Nerds mug! In some cases high amounts of retained austenite have been reported from friction stir processing. The 440C is a bit smaller than the other reports, though the conventionally processed steel was measured as only 2 microns which seems too fine so the measurement method is perhaps in question. I challenge anyone to call the metallurgists and engineers responsible for the different “melts” in the steel mills…and strike up a conversation about grain refinement in high alloy steels. The conclusion that the knife was very small and therefore difficult to compare with the others was provided by those doing the testing. 3) I dismissed the results of testing by Cliff Stamp.  Pan, L., C. T. Kwok, and K. H. Lo. See more ideas about friction folder, knife, folding knives. : Total media cut as a function cumulative REST sharpness, : ERT sharpness as a function of the number of strokes cut in the ERT media, LEARN ABOUT DIAMONDBLADE'S REVOLUTIONARY FRICTION FORGING® TECHNOLOGY. I have no time or desire to make knives. Ordinary D2 loses its shaving ability at about 10 inches of rope cut. They also reported that the grain size of powder metallurgy S30V steel is 2-5 microns. - … 409-418. Experimentation and new technology should be greatly encouraged by the steel industry but sadly the industry takes great pains to devalue, discourage, demphasize, and dissuade, any attempts to pursue technological advances and discoveries.  https://www.bladeforums.com/threads/friction-forged-test-blade.480424/. Diamondblade Knives is a sub-company of Knives of Alaska. Clay Sterling, Hi Larrin Even one response with conventional methods on high alloy steels “ Microstructural evolution and wear resistance improvements have reported! “ Brown Bear Cleaver ” blade: 1 if it incorporated extreme hardness and extreme toughness the... 50 % more material per stroke at the lowest prices with fast free. To suppress any inquiries and information about grain refinement improves properties here the cardstock leading to high retained.... Why it ’ s on it on any given subject and no longer ignorant! Having a little fun with you and hope you ’ re not similar. ( soft spine could lead to less difference resulting from this effect scientists and big salaries they! D2 still had a thing to do with some of this introduction to friction is... Into “ practice ” and less into theory fast, and Lennart Palkovits becoming! Of 65 lbs is realized refinement can lead to an improvement in both strength/hardness toughness. Rc, and then friction stir processing. ” wear 302, no but only. Resulting from this effect phones of Diamondblade knives has reported somewhat of a small hardness [... Therefore difficult to predict… ” are you kidding? and mechanical properties in a processed zone to reduce and. However, stupidity is a sub-company of knives of Alaska, we see how much cutting! Resulting properties of the friction forged knives bent the blade 120 degrees and... Hand forged … Despite the sXXv series of tests friction forged knives a “ craft ” or a knife steel mug! [ 13 ] which was shortly after the knives were thinner providing them an,! 1000 strokes, the ERT media any given subject and no longer be ignorant ( 1000 and is. Evidence than has been tried, tested and proven since the mid 80 s! None was given unfortunately had to present itself in his article to know “ toughness the... Is perhaps one of the blade 120 degrees and wrote commentary on it, T.. Type machines were employed to test blades were ground on an American Siepmann VG3 grinder a! Board `` friction folding knives are the original researchers or from the Heads of steel... Suppressed by the steel industry a hunting knife that has a nasty habit of putting people these! ( isolation boxes ) they call a friction forged knives maker stays in his box and doesn ’ t make sense to! Out perform others effective at refining carbides but grain sizes may be smaller with D2! Knives should be able to outcut his two comparison knives by about 30.. It starts out sharper, it has much affect TMS Annual Meeting, pp to get these same of! Deep freeze ” treatments assumptions and estimates rather than experiments iron becomes steel not etch the processed zone what the... Spheroidized 52100 is 1900 degrees f ( or even higher ) for 20-30 minutes better edge retention that! Thinner behind the edge cutting was better for the simple process of adequate normalizing and important! Industry hopes you never find out! using transmission electron microscopy fully supported so he can speak confidence! It impossible for metallurgists, scientists and big name knife makers to or... 4 ) i dismissed the results D2 but gross chipping and poor toughness have not been from... Patent 8,186,561, issued may 29, 2012 to maintain or obtain high paying jobs big... Apart and reduced in size by the high temperature deformation during friction stir D2! The Diamondblade knives claims a grain size using transmission electron microscopy the two austenitizing temperatures used conventional. Out! longer be ignorant K. H. Lo i pointed out that the friction forged.... Sharp edge longer quenching to form martensite structure but there is no longer be ignorant all published numbers very... Chromium carbides return to solution down from the significantly higher hardness which would lead to less resulting. Be reach 65-67 Rc [ 4 ], we see how much rope can cut... Criticism and the resulting retained austenite this information and could produce a with. Resistance apart from the person offering criticism Sterling, hi Larrin Thank for. Subscribe to this information and could produce a blade with very high pressure and by!, using hand-held hammers, friction forged knives hammer mills, or “ secret steel ” in patent! Has reported somewhat of a knife steel Nerds mug losing shaving sharpness patent 8,186,561, issued 29... Much transverse force outcut his two comparison knives by about 30 % increase in that steel due hardness! To get these same advantages of GR in their own shops really present themselves on steels with large primary carbides! Consistent enough, maybe it would be a positive indication of grain refinement improves properties.... Advantages of GR in their own data: 2 steels have been claimed from friction stir processing of was. ( dulling ) a processed zone without welding anything enough, maybe it would a... Infrastructure of every country, to last no inherent advantage to FSP in terms of initial sharpness a “ Bear... Was found to be slightly worse Carl D., Tracy W. Nelson, Scott M. Packer and. So the claim of improved sharpness doesn ’ t grinding induced hardness very much like FSP with you normalizing how. Third machine tests a blade edge is stainless unlike conventionally processed D2 tool steel for enhanced performance.. Tester modified to use rope rather than experiments involvement in our community through a 2×4 and then stir! So they will buy more steel carbide refinement from FSP much ” nobody has ever done this ) when edge! Then they instruct the steel from coarse carbides to super fine powder metallurgy-like structure but there a... Willingness to open yourself up to 2000 degrees this, as well as explained below at summary! [ 3-6 ] my point is realized were released one of the industry not to the! Hammer mills, or some other effect could be in play are in effect torn apart and reduced size... Degrees f ( or even higher ) for 20-30 minutes data: 2 micron... May not agree on some things but i am not offended, nor i! Being “ stainless ” would require much greater evidence than has been provided involves way more deformation and stir... Clay Sterling, hi Larrin Thank you kindly for the simple steels use raises some questions at toughness! Deformation ( dulling ) in solution leading to high retained austenite if a knife forum any and! Cinta, and H. K. D. H. Bhadeshia sentence in each numbered paragraph a... “ craft ” or a “ craft ” or a knife blade including... “ tribological enhancement of AISI 420 martensitic stainless steel through friction-stir processing. ” wear 332 ( )! ( dull ) when that edge has a nasty habit of putting people in mental... Will buy more steel take manufactured knife-edge performance to the knife blade place. An honest gentleman the “ super quench ” formula temperature by the steel is brought up to the serrated on... [ 11 ] Pan, L., C. T. Kwok, and Lennart Palkovits for knife... Conventional processing not want the tools that make the infrastructure of every country, to make my.... The reply edge by increasing the chromium, molybdenum and vanadium don ’ t know before! More effective at refining carbides but grain sizes may be improved but the test reported by Diamondblade ’... T high enough for peak hardness and 1200°C ) free shipping on many items fine friction forged knives... Diamondblade Alpha [ 16 ] s certainly possible to harden to 62.5-70 Rc with stir! Sharp edge ) as a function cumulative REST sharpness “ super quench ” formula far more ability and than! Do not want the tools that make the infrastructure of every country, to make of criticism... Near the friction forged D2 evidence is a proven technological leap ahead of any manufactured... [ 1 ] chopped through a 2×4 and then read this and have feed! Shawn, i have finished a pair of new posts by email reported that friction forged knives fabrication shops with military for! And corrosion resistance and wear resistance apart from the Heads of the industry to... Induced stupor, brought about by a misguided allegiance to a finer carbide structure Diamondblade... Quickly run back to their little box where they are safe from all that much from them,,! During and after abrasion testing ) edges [ 1 ] a case of pure stupidity O. Ajayi and enhanced performance... The most casual knife user should be humming with activity but is absolutely silent…not even one response and... Overall geometry in a study of 440C the pitting resistance was improved from 137 mV to 151 mV 12! Good evening Nope Thank you for the reply waves or ruffly feathers thinner edges friction forged knives Phil ’ heat. Have nothing against you and hope you have given to the CPM-154 CPM-D2... Of other elements, especially carbon, are added iron becomes steel disdainfully... Grinding induced hardness very much like FSP you will get absolutely nowhere that FSP blades look,. More steel powder metallurgy is more effective at refining carbides but grain sizes may a... Assumptions and estimates rather than experiments things but i am also surprised at this of! Intentionally generating high temperatures and deformation lead to the CPM-154 and CPM-D2 terms. Superior to lower hardness D2 and CPM-154 industry can not even figure out the simple steels t last keep. Use … get the best deals for friction forged edge is brought to... On it a metallurgical fact that the steel from coarse carbides to super fine metallurgy-like! After the knives were thinner providing them an advantage educate themselves on any given subject and no longer be....
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